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Versions: 00

sfc                                                         F. Brockners
Internet-Draft                                               S. Bhandari
Intended status: Standards Track                             V. Govindan
Expires: May 3, 2018                                        C. Pignataro
                                                                   Cisco
                                                              H. Gredler
                                                            RtBrick Inc.
                                                                J. Leddy
                                                                 Comcast
                                                               S. Youell
                                                                    JMPC
                                                              T. Mizrahi
                                                                 Marvell
                                                                D. Mozes
                                              Mellanox Technologies Ltd.
                                                             P. Lapukhov
                                                                Facebook
                                                                R. Chang
                                                       Barefoot Networks
                                                        October 30, 2017


                 NSH Encapsulation for In-situ OAM Data
                    draft-brockners-sfc-ioam-nsh-00

Abstract

   In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) records
   operational and telemetry information in the packet while the packet
   traverses a path between two points in the network.  This document
   outlines how IOAM data fields are encapsulated in the Network Service
   Header (NSH).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."




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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 3, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  IOAM data fields encapsulation in NSH . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  IOAM Trace Data in NSH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  IOAM POT Data in NSH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  IOAM Edge-to-Edge Data in NSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Discussion of the encapsulation approach  . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   In-situ OAM (IOAM) records OAM information within the packet while
   the packet traverses a particular network domain.  The term "in-situ"
   refers to the fact that the OAM data is added to the data packets
   rather than is being sent within packets specifically dedicated to
   OAM.  This document defines how IOAM data fields are transported as
   part of the Network Service Header (NSH) [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh])
   encapsulation.  The IOAM data fields are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].  An implementation of IOAM which leverages
   NSH to carry the IOAM data is available from the FD.io open source
   software project [FD.io].





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2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Abbreviations used in this document:

   IOAM:      In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   MTU:       Maximum Transmit Unit

   NSH:       Network Service Header

   OAM:       Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   POT:       Proof of Transit

   SFC:       Service Function Chain

   TLV:       Type, Length, Value

3.  IOAM data fields encapsulation in NSH

   IOAM data fields are carried within the NSH header following NSH MDx
   metadata TLVs.

3.1.  IOAM Trace Data in NSH

   IOAM tracing data represents data that is inserted at nodes that a
   packet traverses.  To allow for optimal implementations in both
   software as well as hardware forwarders, two different ways to
   encapsulate IOAM data are defined: "Pre-allocated" and "incremental".
   See [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data] for details on IOAM tracing and the
   pre-allocated and incremental IOAM trace options.

   The packet formats of the pre-allocated IOAM trace and incremental
   IOAM trace when transported in NSH are defined as below.

   Note that in Service Function Chaining (SFC) [RFC7665], the Network
   Service Header (NSH) [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh] already includes path tracing
   capabilities [I-D.penno-sfc-trace].  IOAM data fields for tracing
   complement the capabilities in NSH, in that IOAM data fields carry
   information complementary to information in NSH and benefit from the
   fact, that IOAM data fields use their own namespace.  This allows
   intermediate nodes, which are not NSH hops to also process and update
   the IOAM data fields if configured to do so.




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 IOAM Trace header following NSH MDx header
 (Pre-allocated IOAM trace):

  0                   1                   2                   3
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |Ver|O|C|R|R|R|R|R|R|   Length  |  MD Type      | NP=IOAM_Trace |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  N
 |          Service Path Identifer               | Service Index |  S
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  H
 |                            ...                                |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |      Type     |   IOAM HDR len|    Reserved   | Next Protocol |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ IOAM
 |         IOAM-Trace-Type       |NodeLen|  Flags  | Octets-left | Trace
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |                                                               |  |
 |                        node data list [0]                     | IOAM
 |                                                               |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  D
 |                                                               |  a
 |                        node data list [1]                     |  t
 |                                                               |  a
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 ~                             ...                               ~  S
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  p
 |                                                               |  a
 |                        node data list [n-1]                   |  c
 |                                                               |  e
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 |                                                               |  |
 |                        node data list [n]                     |  |
 |                                                               |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-<--+
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 |                     Payload + Padding (L2/L3/ESP/...)         |
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

 IOAM Pre-allocated Trace Option Data MUST be 4-octet aligned:








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 IOAM Trace header following NSH MDx header
 (Incremental IOAM trace):

  0                   1                   2                   3
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |Ver|O|C|R|R|R|R|R|R|   Length  |  MD Type      | NP=IOAM_Trace |  N
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  S
 |          Service Path Identifer               | Service Index |  H
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 |                            ...                                |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |      Type     |  IOAM HDR len |    Reserved   | Next Protocol |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ IOAM
 |        IOAM-Trace-Type        |NodeLen|  Flags  | Max Length  | Trace
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
 |                                                               |  |
 |                        node data list [0]                     | IOAM
 |                                                               |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  D
 |                                                               |  a
 |                        node data list [1]                     |  t
 |                                                               |  a
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 ~                             ...                               ~  S
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  p
 |                                                               |  a
 |                        node data list [n-1]                   |  c
 |                                                               |  e
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
 |                                                               |  |
 |                        node data list [n]                     |  |
 |                                                               |  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-<--+
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 |                     Payload + Padding (L2/L3/ESP/...)         |
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 |                                                               |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


 IOAM Incremental Trace Option Data MUST be 4-octet aligned:

   Next Protocol of NSH:  TBD value for IOAM_Trace.





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   Type:  8-bit unsigned integer defining IOAM header type
      IOAM_TRACE_Preallocated or IOAM_Trace_Incremental are defined
      here.

   IOAM HDR len:  8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the IOAM HDR in
      4-octet units.

   Reserved bits and R bits:  Reserved bits are present for future use.
      The reserved bits MUST be set to 0x0.

   Next Protocol:  8-bit unsigned integer that determines the type of
      header following IOAM protocol.

   IOAM-Trace-Type:  16-bit identifier of IOAM Trace Type as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data] IOAM-Trace-Types.

   Node Data Length:  4-bit unsigned integer as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   Flags:  5-bit field as defined in [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   Octets-left:  7-bit unsigned integer as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   Maximum-length:  7-bit unsigned integer as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   Node data List [n]:  Variable-length field as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

3.2.  IOAM POT Data in NSH

   IOAM proof of transit (POT, see [I-D.brockners-proof-of-transit])
   offers a means to verify that a packet has traversed a defined set of
   nodes.  In an administrative domain where IOAM is used, insertion of
   the IOAM data into the NSH header is enabled at the required nodes
   (i.e. at the IOAM encapsulating/decapsulating nodes) by means of
   configuration.

   IOAM POT data fields are added as a TLV following NSH MDx metadata:











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   IOAM POT header following NSH MDx header:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
   |Ver|O|C|R|R|R|R|R|R|   Length  |  MD Type      | NP = IOAM_POT |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  N
   |          Service Path Identifer               | Service Index |  S
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  H
   |                            ...                                |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
   |IOAM_POT Type|P|   IOAM HDR len|    Reserved   | Next Protocol |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                           Random                              |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  P
   |                        Random(contd.)                         |  O
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  T
   |                         Cumulative                            |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                    Cumulative (contd.)                        |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+

   Next Protocol of NSH:  TBD value for IOAM_POT.

   IOAM POT Type:  7-bit identifier of a particular POT variant that
      specifies the POT data that is to be included as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   Profile to use (P):  1-bit as defined in [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data]
      IOAM POT Option.

   IOAM HDR len:  8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the IOAM HDR in
      4-octet units.

   Reserved bits and R bits:  Reserved bits are present for future use.
      The reserved bits MUST be set to 0x0.

   Next Protocol:  8-bit unsigned integer that determines the type of
      header following IOAM protocol.

   Random:  64-bit Per-packet random number.

   Cumulative:  64-bit Cumulative value that is updated by the Service
      Functions.







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3.3.  IOAM Edge-to-Edge Data in NSH

   The IOAM edge-to-edge option is to carry data that is added by the
   IOAM encapsulating node and interpreted by the IOAM decapsulating
   node.  The "Edge-to-Edge" capabilities (see
   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements]) of IOAM can be leveraged
   within NSH.  In an administrative domain where IOAM is used,
   insertion of the IOAM data into the NSH header is enabled at the
   required nodes (i.e. at the IOAM encapsulating/decapsulating nodes)
   by means of configuration.

   IOAM Edge-to-Edge data fields are added as a TLV following NSH MDx
   metadata:

  IOAM E2E header following NSH MDx header:

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
  |Ver|O|C|R|R|R|R|R|R|   Length  |  MD Type      | NP = IOAM_E2E |  |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  N
  |          Service Path Identifer               | Service Index |  S
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  H
  |                            ...                                |  |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
  |IOAM_E2E_Type  |   IOAM HDR len|    Reserved   | Next Protocol | IOAM
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  E2E
  |      E2E Option data field determined by IOAM-E2E-Type        |  |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+


   Next Protocol of NSH:  TBD value for IOAM_E2E.

   IOAM E2E Type:  8-bit identifier of a particular E2E variant that
      specifies the IOAM E2E data that is to be included as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

   IOAM HDR len:  8-bit unsigned integer.  Length of the IOAM HDR in
      4-octet units.

   Reserved bits and R bits:  Reserved bits are present for future use.
      The reserved bits MUST be set to 0x0.

   Next Protocol:  8-bit unsigned integer that determines the type of
      header following IOAM protocol.

   E2E Option data field:  Variable length field as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data] IOAM E2E Option.



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4.  Discussion of the encapsulation approach

   This section is to support the working group discussion in selecting
   the most appropriate approach for encapsulating IOAM data fields in
   NSH.

   An encapsulation of IOAM data fields in NSH should be friendly to an
   implementation in both hardware as well as software forwarders and
   support a wide range of deployment cases, including large networks
   that desire to leverage multiple IOAM data fields at the same time.

      Hardware and software friendly implementation: Hardware forwarders
      benefit from an encapsulation that minimizes iterative look-ups of
      fields within the packet: Any operation which looks up the value
      of a field within the packet, based on which another lookup is
      performed, consumes additional gates and time in an implementation
      - both of which are desired to be kept to a minimum.  This means
      that flat TLV structures are to be preferred over nested TLV
      structures.  IOAM data fields are grouped into three option
      categories: Trace, proof-of-transit, and edge-to-edge.  Each of
      these three options defines a TLV structure.  A hardware-friendly
      encapsulation approach avoids grouping these three option
      categories into yet another TLV structure, but would rather carry
      the options as a serial sequence.

      Total length of the IOAM data fields: The total length of IOAM
      data can grow quite large in case multiple different IOAM data
      fields are used and large path-lengths need to be considered.  If
      for example an operator would consider using the IOAM trace option
      and capture node-id, app_data, egress/ingress interface-id,
      timestamp seconds, timestamps nanoseconds at every hop, then a
      total of 20 octets would be added to the packet at every hop.  In
      case this particular deployment would have a maximum path length
      of 15 hops in the IOAM domain, then a maximum of 300 octets of
      IOAM data were to be encapsulated in the packet.

   Two approaches for encapsulating IOAM data fields in NSH could be
   considered:

   1.  Encapsulation of IOAM data fields as "NSH MD Type 2" (see
       [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh], section 2.5).  Each IOAM data field option
       (trace, proof-of-transit, and edge-to-edge) would be specified by
       a type, with the different IOAM data fields being TLVs within
       this the particular option type.  NSH MD Type 2 offers support
       for variable length meta-data.  The length field is 6-bits,
       resulting in a maximum of 256 (2^6 x 4) octets.





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   2.  Encapsulation of IOAM data fields using the "Next Protocol"
       field.  Each IOAM data field option (trace, proof-of-transit, and
       edge-to-edge) would be specified by its own "next protocol".

   The second option has been chosen here, because it avoids the
   additional layer of TLV nesting that the use of NSH MD Type 2 would
   result in.  In addition, the second option does not constrain IOAM
   data to a maximum of 256 octets, thus allowing support for very large
   deployments.

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to allocate protocol numbers for the following NSH
   "Next Protocols" related to IOAM:

                 +---------------+-------------+---------------+
                 | Next Protocol | Description | Reference     |
                 +---------------+-------------+---------------+
                 | x             | IOAM_Trace  | This document |
                 | y             | IOAM_POT    | This document |
                 | z             | IOAM_E2E    | This document |
                 +---------------+-------------+---------------+


6.  Security Considerations

   IOAM is considered a "per domain" feature, where one or several
   operators decide on leveraging and configuring IOAM according to
   their needs.  Still, operators need to properly secure the IOAM
   domain to avoid malicious configuration and use, which could include
   injecting malicious IOAM packets into a domain.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Eric Vyncke, Nalini Elkins, Srihari
   Raghavan, Ranganathan T S, Karthik Babu Harichandra Babu, Akshaya
   Nadahalli, Stefano Previdi, Hemant Singh, Erik Nordmark, LJ Wobker,
   and Andrew Yourtchenko for the comments and advice.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [ETYPES]   "IANA Ethernet Numbers",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/ethernet-numbers/
              ethernet-numbers.xhtml>.





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   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Dara, S., Pignataro, C.,
              Gredler, H., Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mozes, D., Mizrahi,
              T., <>, P., and r. remy@barefootnetworks.com,
              "Requirements for In-situ OAM", draft-brockners-inband-
              oam-requirements-03 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Pignataro, C., Gredler, H.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Mozes, D., Lapukhov,
              P., Chang, R., and d. daniel.bernier@bell.ca, "Data Fields
              for In-situ OAM", draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-data-00 (work in
              progress), September 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe]
              Maino, F., Kreeger, L., and U. Elzur, "Generic Protocol
              Extension for VXLAN", draft-ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe-04 (work
              in progress), April 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh]
              Quinn, P., Elzur, U., and C. Pignataro, "Network Service
              Header (NSH)", draft-ietf-sfc-nsh-27 (work in progress),
              October 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2784]  Farinacci, D., Li, T., Hanks, S., Meyer, D., and P.
              Traina, "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 2784,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2784, March 2000, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2784>.

   [RFC3232]  Reynolds, J., Ed., "Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced
              by an On-line Database", RFC 3232, DOI 10.17487/RFC3232,
              January 2002, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3232>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [FD.io]    "Fast Data Project: FD.io", <https://fd.io/>.

   [I-D.brockners-proof-of-transit]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Dara, S., Pignataro, C.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mozes, D., and T. Mizrahi, "Proof
              of Transit", draft-brockners-proof-of-transit-03 (work in
              progress), March 2017.




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   [I-D.ietf-ippm-6man-pdm-option]
              Elkins, N., Hamilton, R., and m. mackermann@bcbsm.com,
              "IPv6 Performance and Diagnostic Metrics (PDM) Destination
              Option", draft-ietf-ippm-6man-pdm-option-13 (work in
              progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]
              Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S.,
              and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf-
              spring-segment-routing-12 (work in progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.kitamura-ipv6-record-route]
              Kitamura, H., "Record Route for IPv6 (PR6) Hop-by-Hop
              Option Extension", draft-kitamura-ipv6-record-route-00
              (work in progress), November 2000.

   [I-D.penno-sfc-trace]
              Penno, R., Quinn, P., Pignataro, C., and D. Zhou,
              "Services Function Chaining Traceroute", draft-penno-sfc-
              trace-03 (work in progress), September 2015.

   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc7665>.

Authors' Addresses

   Frank Brockners
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Hansaallee 249, 3rd Floor
   DUESSELDORF, NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN  40549
   Germany

   Email: fbrockne@cisco.com


   Shwetha Bhandari
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Cessna Business Park, Sarjapura Marathalli Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore, KARNATAKA 560 087
   India

   Email: shwethab@cisco.com







Brockners, et al.          Expires May 3, 2018                 [Page 12]


Internet-Draft        In-situ OAM NSH encapsulation         October 2017


   Vengada Prasad Govindan
   Cisco Systems, Inc.

   Email: venggovi@cisco.com


   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-11 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Email: cpignata@cisco.com


   Hannes Gredler
   RtBrick Inc.

   Email: hannes@rtbrick.com


   John Leddy
   Comcast

   Email: John_Leddy@cable.comcast.com


   Stephen Youell
   JP Morgan Chase
   25 Bank Street
   London  E14 5JP
   United Kingdom

   Email: stephen.youell@jpmorgan.com


   Tal Mizrahi
   Marvell
   6 Hamada St.
   Yokneam  20692
   Israel

   Email: talmi@marvell.com








Brockners, et al.          Expires May 3, 2018                 [Page 13]


Internet-Draft        In-situ OAM NSH encapsulation         October 2017


   David Mozes
   Mellanox Technologies Ltd.

   Email: davidm@mellanox.com


   Petr Lapukhov
   Facebook
   1 Hacker Way
   Menlo Park, CA  94025
   US

   Email: petr@fb.com


   Remy Chang
   Barefoot Networks
   2185 Park Boulevard
   Palo Alto, CA  94306
   US































Brockners, et al.          Expires May 3, 2018                 [Page 14]


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