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ANIMA WG                                                          B. Liu
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                  S. Jiang
Intended Status: Standard Track                      Huawei Technologies
Expires: August 15, 2018                                         X. Xiao
                                                               A. Hecker
                                                           Z. Despotovic
                                                MRC, Huawei Technologies
                                                       February 11, 2018




            Information Distribution in Autonomic Networking
                 draft-liu-anima-grasp-distribution-05


Abstract

   This document discusses the requirement of capability of information
   distribution among autonomic nodes in autonomic networks. In general,
   information distribution can be categorized into two different modes:
   1) one autonomic node instantly sends information to other nodes in
   the domain; 2) one autonomic node can publish some information and
   then some other interested nodes can subscribe the published
   information.

   These capabilities are fundamental and basic elements to a network
   system and an autonomic network infrastructure (ANI) should consider
   to integrate them, rather than assisted by other transport or routing
   protocols (HTTP, BGP/IGP as bearing protocols etc.).  Thus, this
   document clarifies possible use cases and requirements to ANI so that
   information distribution can be natively supported. Possible options
   realizing the information distribution function are also briefly
   discussed.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference



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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

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Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.



Table of Contents

   1  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2. Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3. Scenarios and Requirements of Information Distribution . . . . . 3
      3.1 Point-to-Point (P2P) Communications  . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
      3.2 One-to-Many Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
      3.3 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   4. Node Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      4.1 Requirements for Instant Information Distribution  . . . . . 6
         4.1.1 Instant P2P and Flooding Communications . . . . . . . . 6
         4.1.2 Instant Selective Flooding Communication  . . . . . . . 6
      4.2 Requirements for Asynchronous Information Distribution . . . 7
         4.2.1 Event Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         4.2.2 Information Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         4.2.3 Interface between IS and EQ Modules . . . . . . . . . . 9
      4.3 Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   5. Integration with GRASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   6  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12



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1  Introduction

   In autonomic networking, autonomic functions (AFs) running on
   autonomic nodes utilize autonomic control plane (ACP) to realize
   various control purposes [RFC7575]. Due to the distributed nature of
   a network system, AFs need to exchange information constantly, either
   for control plane signaling, for data plane service or for both.

   This document discusses the information distribution capability of an
   autonomic network.  We classify the communication models of
   information distribution into the following two:

      1) An instant communication model where a sender builds a
      connection to send information (e.g. control messages,
      synchronization data and so on) to the receiver(s).

      2) An asynchronous communication model where an autonomic node
      publishes information and any other nodes that are interested in
      the information can later subscribe that and will be notified if
      the information become available.

   The two communication models should be integrated within the
   Autonomic Network Infrastructure (ANI) [I-D.behringer-anima-
   reference-model], rather than assisted by other transport or routing
   protocols (HTTP, BGP/IGP as bearing protocols etc.). In fact, GRASP
   already provides some capabilities to support parts of the
   distribution function, utilized for stable connectivity as in [I-
   D.ietf-anima-stable-connectivity-10].

   In this document, we summary possible scenarios of information
   distribution in autonomic networks (Section 2), and then discuss the
   technical requirements (Section 3) that an autonomic node has to
   fulfill. Moreover, possible ways to realize the information
   distribution module are presented.

2. Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3. Scenarios and Requirements of Information Distribution

   We first summarize possible scenarios into the following categories.
   After that, we discuss the requirements of communication capabilities
   for the scenarios.

3.1 Point-to-Point (P2P) Communications



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   This is a common scenario in most of network systems. Information are
   exchanged between two communicating parties from one node to another
   node. Specifically, the information can be either pushed to the
   receiver or pulled from a sender. Therefore, we have two sub-cases:

      1) One node acquires some information from another one. This is a
      very common scenario that can already be covered by GRASP.

      2) One node actively pushes some information to another one. For
      example, when some common information are propagated to the
      network, it is possible that some nodes are sleeping/off-line, so
      when these nodes get online again, their neighbors could push the
      information to them immediately.

3.2 One-to-Many Communications

   Some information exchange involve an information source and multiple
   receivers. This scenario can be divided into two situations:

      1) When some information are relevant to all or most of the nodes
      in the domain, the node that firstly handle the information should
      use a mechanism to propagate it to all the other nodes.  One
      typical case is the Intent distribution, which is briefly
      discussed in Section 4.7 of [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]. A
      flood mechanism, which can guarantee the information could reach
      to every node, is the most proper approach to do this.

      2) A more general case is that some information is only relevant
      to a specific group of nodes belonging to the same sub-domain or
      sharing the same interests. Then, the information needs to be
      propagated to the nodes that fit for certain conditions. This
      could reduce some unnecessary signaling amplification.

3.3 Requirements

   Clearly, either the P2P scenario or the one-to-many scenario can be
   directly carried by the instant communication model. Especially, if
   the information exchange is simple and short, this can be done
   instantly. In practice, however, information distribution is not
   always simple. As examples, in the following cases, a combination of
   the instant and asynchronous communication models is more
   appropriate.

      1) Long Communication Intervals. The time interval of the
      communication is not necessarily always short and instant.
      Advanced AFs  may rather involve heavy jobs/tasks when gearing the
      network, so the direct mode may introduce unnecessary pending time
      and become less efficient. For example, an AF accesses another AF



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      for a database lookup. Similar use cases include AF migration, AF
      authentication and authorization. If simply using an instant mode,
      the AF has to wait until the tasks finish and return. A better way
      is that an AF instantly sends the request but switches to an
      synchronous mode, once the jobs are finished, AFs will get
      notified.

      2) Common Interest Distribution. As mentioned, some information
      are common interests among AFs. For example, the network intent is
      distributed to network nodes enrolled, which is a typical one-to-
      many scenario. We can also finish the intent distribution by an
      instant flooding (e.g. via GRASP) to every network nodes across
      the network domain. Because of network dynamic, however, not every
      node can be just ready at the moment when the network intent is
      flooded. Actually, nodes may join in the network sequentially. In
      this situation, an asynchronous communication model could be a
      better choice where every (newly joining) node can subscribe the
      intent information and will get notified if it is ready (or
      updated).

      3) Distributed Coordination. With computing and storage resources
      on autonomic nodes, alive AFs not only consumes but also generates
      data information. For example, AFs coordinating with each other as
      distributed schedulers, responding to service requests and
      distributing tasks. It is critical for those AFs to make correct
      decisions based on local information, which might be asymmetric as
      well. AFs may also need synthetic/aggregated data information
      (e.g. statistic info, like average values of several AFs, etc.) to
      make decisions. In these situations, AFs will need an efficient
      way to form a global view of the network (e.g. about resource
      consumption, bandwidth and statistics). Obviously, purely relying
      on instant communication model is inefficient, while a scalable,
      common, yet distributed data layer, on which AFs can store and
      share information in an asynchronous way, should be a better
      choice.

   For ANI, in order to support various communication scenarios, an
   information distribution module is required, and both instant and
   asynchronous communication models are needed.

4. Node Requirements

   In this section, we discuss how each autonomic node should behave in
   order to realize the information distribution module. In other words,
   we discuss the node requirement if an information distribution module
   is required across the ANI. Supporting the two communication models
   that may happen in the ANI necessarily involves node interactions and
   information data exchange. Specifically, we first introduce the node



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   requirement for the instant communication model, and after that we
   introduce the node requirement for the asynchronous communication
   model.

4.1 Requirements for Instant Information Distribution

   In this case, sender(s) and receiver(s) are explicitly and
   immediately specified (e.g. the addresses of the receivers).
   Information will be directly distributed from the sender(s) to the
   receiver(s). This requires that every node is equipped by some
   signaling/transport protocols so that they can coordinate with each
   other and correctly deliver the information.

4.1.1 Instant P2P and Flooding Communications

   We consider that the GRASP in the existing ANI more or less already
   can provide instant P2P and flooding communications with minimum
   efforts.

   Straightforwardly, it is natural to use the GRASP Synchronization
   message directly for P2P distribution. Furthermore, it is also
   natural to use the GRASP Flood Synchronization message for 1-to-all
   distribution, because the Flood Synchronization behavior specified in
   GRASP is identical to the the whole domain distribution scenario
   described in Section 3.2.

   However, as mentioned in Section 3.1, in some scenarios one node
   needs to actively send some information to another. GRASP
   Synchronization just lacks such capability. An un-solicited
   synchronization mechanism is needed.

4.1.2 Instant Selective Flooding Communication

   When doing selective flooding, the distributed information needs to
   contain the criteria for nodes to judge which interfaces should be
   sent the distributed information and which are not. Specifically, the
   criteria contain:

      o  Matching condition: a set of matching rules.

      o  Matching object: the object that the match condition would be
      applied to.  For example, the matching object could be node itself
      or its neighbors.

      o  Action: what behavior the node needs to do when the matching
      object matches or failed the matching condition.  For example, the
      action could be forwarding or discarding the distributed message.




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   The sender has to includes the criteria information in the message
   that carries the distributed information. The receiving node decides
   the action according to the criteria carried in the message. Still
   considering the criteria attached with the distributed information,
   the node behaviors can be:

      o When the Matching Object is "Neighbors", then the node matches
      the relevant information of its neighbors to the Matching
      Condition.  If the node finds one neighbor matches the Matching
      Condition, then it forwards the distributed message to the
      neighbor.  If not, the node discards forwarding the message to the
      neighbor.

      o When the Matching Object is the node itself, then the node
      matches the relevant information of its own to the Matching
      Condition.  If the node finds itself matches the Matching
      Condition, then it forwards the distributed message to its
      neighbors; if not, the node discards forwarding the message to the
      neighbors.

4.2 Requirements for Asynchronous Information Distribution

   Asynchronous information distribution happens in a different way
   where sender(s) and receiver(s) are normally not immediately
   specified. In other words, both the sender and the receiver may come
   up in an asynchronous way. First of all, this requires that the
   information can be stored; secondly, it requires an information
   publication and subscription (Pub/Sub) mechanism.

   Specifically, an information publisher 1) receives publishing
   requests from local AFs (also from ASAs), 2) decides where to store
   the published information, 3) updates corresponding event queues. On
   the other hand, an information subscriber registers its interests, 2)
   monitors event queues in the system and 3) trigger information
   retrieval if information of registered events are ready.

   In general, each node requires two modules: 1) event queue (EQ)
   module and 2) information storage (IS) module shown in Figure. 1.
   These two modules should be integrated with the information
   distribution module. We introduce details of the two modules in the
   following sections.

                +---------------------------------------+
                | +---------------+   +---------------+ |
                | |  Event Queue  |-|-| Info. Storage | |
                | +---------------+   +---------------+ |
                +---------------------------------------+
              Figure 1. Components for asynchronous comm.



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4.2.1 Event Queue

   Event Queue (EQ) module is responsible for event classification,
   event prioritization and event matching.

   Firstly, EQ module provides isolated event queues customized for
   different event groups. Specifically, two groups of AFs could have
   completely different purposes or interests, therefore EQ
   classification allows to create multiple message queues where only
   AFs interested in the same category of events will be aware of the
   corresponding event queue.

   Secondly, events generated may have to be processed with different
   priorities. Some of them are more urgent than the normal and regular
   ones. Also between two event queues, their priorities may be
   different. EQ prioritization allows AFs to set different priorities
   on the information they published. Based on the priority settings in
   the event queue, matching and delivery of them will be adjusted. EQ
   module can provide several pre-defined priority levels for both
   intra-queue and inter-queue prioritizations.

   Third, events in queues will be listened and if a publishing event is
   found and matched by a registration event, information retrieval will
   be triggered.

4.2.2 Information Storage

   Events are closely related to the information. IS module handles how
   to efficiently save and retrieve information for AFs across the
   network according to announced events. Any information that is
   published by AFs will be sent to the IS module, and the IS module
   decides where to store the information and how to index and retrieve
   it.

   The IS module defines a syntax to index information, not only
   generating the hash index value (e.g. a key) for the information, but
   also mapping the hash index to a certain network node in ANI.

   When data information is published by an AF (i.e. publishing events),
   it will be sent to the IS module. The IS module calculates its hash
   index (i.e. the key) and the location responsible for storing the
   information. The IS module confirms with the node chosen to store the
   information by negotiation. After that, if available, the IS module
   sends the information to there.

   When data information has to be retrieved (i.e. subscribing events),
   a request from an AF will be also received by the IS module. IS
   module, by parsing the request, identifies the hash index of the



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   information, which tells the location of the information as well.
   After that, the IS module requests the desired information and
   retrieves it once it is ready.

   IS module can reuse distributed databases and key value stores like
   NoSQL, Cassandra, DHT technologies. storage and retrieval of
   information are all event-driven responsible by the EQ module.

4.2.3 Interface between IS and EQ Modules

   EQ and IS modules are correlated. When an AF publishes information,
   not only an publishing event is translated and sent to EQ module, but
   also the information is indexed and stored simultaneously. Similarly,
   when an AF subscribes information, not only subscribing event is
   triggered and sent to EQ module, but also the information will be
   retrieved by IS module at the same time.

4.3 Summary

   In summary, the general requirements for the information distribution
   module on each autonomic node are two sub-modules handling instant
   communications and asynchronous communications, respectively. For
   instant communications, node requirements are simple, in which
   signaling protocols have to be supported. With minimum efforts,
   reusing the existing GRASP is possible. For asynchronous
   communications, information distribution module requires event queue
   and information storage mechanism to be supported.


5. Integration with GRASP

   There are multiple ways to integrate the information distribution
   module. The principle we follow is to minimize modifications made to
   the current ANI.

   We consider to use GRASP as an interface to access the information
   distribution module. The main reason is that the current version of
   GRASP is already an information distribution module for the cases of
   P2P and flooding. What is missing are the support of 1) 1-to-Many
   instant communications and 2) asynchronous communications. In the
   following discussions, we introduce how to complete the missing part.

   5.1 GRASP for instant communications

   GRASP already supports instant communications for the cases of P2P
   and flooding. In order to support 1-to-Many communication scenario,
   where not all nodes in the network have to be the recipients, a
   selective flooding is required.



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   GRASP includes flooding criteria together with the delivered
   information so that every node will process and act according to the
   criteria specified in the message. An example of extending GRASP with
   selective criteria can be:

      o  Matching condition: "Device role=IPRAN_RSG"

      o  Matching objective: "Neighbors"

      o  Action: "Forward"

   This example means: only distributing the information to the
   neighbors who are IPRAN_RSG.

   With selective flooding, GRASP covers the instant communication of
   the information distribution module.

   5.2 GRASP for asynchronous communications

   For the asynchronous communication part, it is not covered by the
   current GRASP. Trivially adding the Event Queue and Information
   Storage modules spoils the current protocol design architecture of
   GRASP. Our idea is to treat the asynchronous communication module as
   a black box and design a reference point in GRASP, through which ASAs
   could call the service of the black box.

   The reference point mainly refers to a set of new messages that will
   trigger asynchronous communications (e.g. Pub/Sub). We suggest that
   the reference point contains the following messages:

      o  Message for publishing information:

      o  Message for subscribing information:

      o  Message for unsubscribing information:

      o  Message for unsubscribing information:

      o  Message for even more:



   Note that so far we do not specify the details of those potential new
   messages for GRASP, to which more considerations are needed. Another
   point is that the reference point suggested here can also refer to
   some new objectives, instead of creating new messages.

   In summary, with the selective flooding and the reference point of



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   accessing the asynchronous communication module, full communication
   types can be fulfilled by the ANI. This provides a common interface
   for the upper layer ASAs to communicate with each other for not only
   control plane, but also data plane if needed.







6  Security Considerations

   The distribution source authentication could be done at multiple
   layers:

      o  Outer layer authentication: the GRASP communication is within
      ACP (Autonomic Control Plane,
      [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]). This is the default
      GRASP behavior.

      o  Inner layer authentication: the GRASP communication might not
      be within a protected channel, then there should be embedded
      protection in distribution information itself. Public key
      infrastructure might be involved in this case.

7  IANA Considerations

   TBD.


8  References

   [RFC7575] Behringer, M., "Autonomic Networking: Definitions and
              Design Goals", RFC 7575, June 2015

   [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]
              Eckert, T., Behringer, M., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
              Control Plane (ACP)", draft-behringer-anima-autonomic-
              control-plane-13, December 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-stable-connectivity-10]
              Eckert, T., Behringer, M., "Using Autonomic Control Plane
              for Stable Connectivity of Network OAM", draft-ietf-anima-
              stable-connectivity-10, February 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]
              Behringer, M., Carpenter, B., Eckert, T., Ciavaglia, L.,



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              Pierre P., Liu, B., Nobre, J., and J. Strassner, "A
              Reference Model for Autonomic Networking", draft-ietf-
              anima-reference-model-05, October 2017.

   [I-D.du-anima-an-intent]
              Du, Z., Jiang, S., Nobre, J., Ciavaglia, L., and M.
              Behringer, "ANIMA Intent Policy and Format", draft-
              duanima-an-intent-05 (work in progress), February 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-grasp]
              Bormann, D., Carpenter, B., and B. Liu, "A Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)", draft-ietf-
              animagrasp-15 (Standard Track), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-grasp-api]
              Carpenter, B., Liu, B., Wang, W., and X. Gong, "Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol Application Program Interface
              (GRASP API)", draft-ietf-anima-grasp-api-00 (work in
              progress), December 2017.

Authors' Addresses


   Bing Liu
   Huawei Technologies
   Q27, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing  100095
   P.R. China

   Email: leo.liubing@huawei.com


   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies
   Q27, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing  100095
   P.R. China

   Email: jiangsheng@huawei.com

   Xun Xiao
   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany

   Emails: xun.xiao@huawei.com



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   Artur Hecker
   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany

   Emails: artur.hecker@huawei.com

   Zoran Despotovic
   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany

   Emails: zoran.despotovic@huawei.com






































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